What is causing these white indentations on this tomato?
Tomatoes that are juicy and completely sun-ripened are among the simplest crops to raise in your garden. Nevertheless, excellent tomato plant care entails keeping a watch out for illnesses caused by fungus, bacteria, and viruses, which may produce leaf spots and blights. Temperature, nutrient levels, and moisture levels can also cause problems, potentially ruining your harvest and your dreams of enjoying slices of homegrown tomato on your next BLT. You may avoid these possible issues by being aware with their signs and using a few basic methods. Your plants can remain healthy and fruitful all season with a little little work on your side.
How to Control Tomato Diseases
Some of the most essential things you can do to keep your tomato plants healthy are to choose disease-resistant kinds, space them appropriately, use mulch, and water them at least 1 inch each week. Several common plant illnesses and pests may be found in the soil, which is why it’s always a good idea to rotate where you plant your tomatoes so they don’t grow in the same ground twice in four years. Infections may also spread when tomato leaves get damp, so avoid clustering your tomatoes too closely together. This improves air circulation and speeds up the drying of leaves. While watering your tomato plants, aim towards the base to avoid splashing onto the foliage. Additionally, water in the morning so that wet leaves may dry before the lower evening temps come.
Even if you use all of the greatest growth methods, you’re still going to get certain infections. It’s quite hard to totally treat your plants after they’ve been attacked by fungus, bacteria, or viruses. If you identify the issue early, you may attempt to limit its spread by removing and killing affected leaves or whole plants. You also can try to prevent the diseases from taking hold in the first place by regularly treating with a product labeled for controlling diseases on vegetables, such as Bonide Liquid Copper ( The Home Depot) or Dr. Earth Final Stop (The Home Depot), both of which come in spray bottles that are easy to use and are rated safe for organic gardens.
The Most Common Tomato Plant Diseases and Problems
Tomatoes are usually vigorous growers that will reward you with a bumper crop when grown in full sun with plenty of water and nutrients (these plants tend to be heavy feeders, so they do best in rich soil with supplemental fertilizer). But it’s almost inevitable that these plants will end up with a foliar disease or blemished fruit. Here’s what you should look for so you know what you’re up against.
1. Septoria Leaf Spot
A fungus causes septoria leaf spot, creating small, circular patches with a grayish-white center and dark edges. At the middle of each imperfection, little black dots may appear. Leaves that have been affected become yellow, wither, and fall off. Long periods of warm, wet weather help this disease flourish, and splashing water quickly spreads spores to other leaves.
This fungus appears on tomato fruits as a tiny, round, indented spot. Ultimately, rings encircle the initial location. Fruit flesh may rot entirely through, particularly on overripe tomatoes, so choose fruits as they mature. Splashing water spreads spores, and the fungus is most abundant during warm, rainy weather.
3. Fusarium and Verticillium Wilt
These wilt diseases are caused by fungi in the soil that enter through young roots, then begin to plug the vessels that move water to the roots and stems of the plants. When there isn’t enough water, the plants tend to wilt on sunny days, however they seem to revive at night. Tomato wilt may initially begin in the plant’s top or lower leaves, causing them to lose color and die back from the tips. The cycle is repeated until the whole plant is harmed.
Plant disease-resistant tomato plants to help reduce certain tomato plant illnesses. They should be labeled with the letter V (for verticillium), F, FF, or FFF (for fusarium variations). If one of these tomato wilts occurs, avoid using the location to grow tomato, eggplant, potato, and pepper plants for 4-6 years, because the fungi that cause the tomato wilt can remain in the soil that long without a new host to infect.
4. Early Blight (Alternaria)
Alternaria, another fungus that causes tomato plant disease, produces early blight. Lower leaves show brown or black spots with dark edges, almost like a target. Stem ends of fruits may be attacked, showing large, sunken black areas with concentric rings. This fungus frequently attacks plants after they have set fruit.
5. Late Blight
The fast-spreading tomato plant disease is caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans, and occurs during periods of cool, rainy weather that may come at the end of a growing season. There seems to be frost damage on the leaves, with irregular green-black splotches. Fruits may have big, irregular-shaped brown spots that decay fast. This plant disease affects potatoes as well and may be transmitted from them.
6. Mosaic Virus
Mosaic virus infects a wide range of plants, although it is most frequent in tomatoes. Although the mosaic virus does not destroy the plant, it does reduce the amount and quality of fruits produced. The virus gets its name from the markings that resemble a mosaic of light green and yellow on the leaves and mottling on the fruits of affected plants. Leaves may sometimes develop in deformed shapes that resemble ferns.
Avoid touching the plant as much as possible since the virus enters via incisions in the leaves and stems. This virus also damages tobacco plants and may be passed on from them if you’ve recently touched cigarettes or other tobacco products. If you smoke, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and work with tomatoes while wearing garden gloves.
7. Blossom Drop
Blossom drop is caused by temperature extremes and happens when temperatures increase over 85°F or fall below 58°F. Extreme temperatures kill budding tomato blooms. You may not detect any damage until you have less tomatoes to pick at the end of the season. Use row coverings to boost night temperatures to prevent bloom drop. Unfortunately, there’s not much you can do about hot day temperatures; just maintain healthy plants so they’ll set new buds after the heat wave passes.
8. Blossom-End Rot
Caused by a lack of calcium usually brought on by fluctuating water availability, blossom-end rot is a common tomato problem that impacts the fruit. It appears as a dead, sunken region opposing the stem (the blossom-end of the fruit). When the fruit grows, the area will grow. Promote consistent, stress-free plant development to avoid blossom-end rot. Water plants on a regular basis to keep the soil moist but not wet. To preserve soil moisture, apply a 2-inch layer of mulch around plants.
9. Damping Off
A frustrating fungal disease, damping off causes sudden collapse of seedlings, or failure to germinate. Pre-soak seeds to hasten germination and avoid planting them in cold soil. If planting seeds in potting mix, always use a fresh bag and sterilize your containers first with a 10% bleach solution (add one part bleach to 9 parts water and mix). Let the soil’s surface to dry between waterings.
Essentially a sunburn on a tomato, sunscald causes a section of the fruit to become soft, light in color, and dry. Avoid sunscald by leaving enough foliage to shade the fruits or shading them artificially with a shade cloth.
Understanding the Tomato Plant Disease Code
Sunscald, which is essentially a sunburn on a tomato, causes a piece of the fruit to become mushy, pale in color, and dry. Avoid sunscald by leaving enough foliage to shade the fruits or shading them artificially with a shade cloth.
Several tomato types have disease resistance bred into them. The letters behind the names are codes showing what diseases and insects the tomato plants are bred to resist, including:
V Verticillium wilt
F Fusarium wilt
F Fusarium wilt races 1 and 2
FFF Fusarium wilt races 1, 2, and 3
A Alternaria alternata (stem canker or early blight)
T Tobacco mosaic virus
St Stemphylium (gray leaf spot)
TSWV Tomato spotted wilt virus
Big Beef VFFNTA Hybrid, for example, is bred to resist verticillium wilt, fusarium wilt races 1 and 2, nematodes, tobacco mosaic virus, Alternaria, and early blight.
What are the white marks on my tomato?
Stinkbug eating causes the white pithy tissue areas immediately beneath the skin of your tomatoes. The white corky areas in your friend’s tomato may be caused by one or more of the following factors: tomato variety, high temperatures, low potassium levels, and cool spring weather followed by hot weather.
What does calcium deficiency in tomatoes look like?
Calcium (Ca): A lack of calcium shows up as young leaves curling inwards and lacking colour, and is often a problem in acid soils. This syndrome causes ‘blossom end rot’ in tomatoes.
What causes white marks on tomato plants?
Caused by several types of fungi, powdery mildew is a common disease in tomato plants. It is especially difficult to prevent since it is often transmitted by air currents and insects such as aphids. Powdery mildew is most common when the weather is hot and dry or hot and humid for a lengthy period of time.
What does fungal disease look like on tomato plants?
Early blight shows on tomato leaf as round irregular black or brown dots on the plant’s older leaves. As these lesions enlarge a series of dark concentric rings develop in the center of the spot creating a distinct target pattern.