What is epm in horses

EPM is a disease that affects the brain and spinal cord. It’s caused by the microbe, Sarcocystis neurona, commonly found in the opossum. Horses that come in …


Can a horse be cured of EPM?

About 60 to 70 percent of horses treated for EPM will improve, and 15 to 25 percent will recover completely. Starting treatment early will lead to the best results. The greatest amount of improvement is seen within the first four weeks.

What are signs of EPM in horses?

If left undiagnosed and untreated, EPM can cause devastating and lasting neurological damage. … Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of EPM

  1. Ataxia (incoordination), spasticity (stiff, stilted movements), abnormal gait or lameness.
  2. Incoordination and weakness which worsens when going up or down slopes or when head is elevated.

Is EPM in horses fatal?

EPM is defined as a progressive, degenerative disease, which means as time passes, the inflammation can become widespread and the damage can increase in severity. Once affected, the function of the tissues in the central nervous system may continue to deteriorate. EPM in horses can be fatal.

How do horses get EPM?

Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurologic disease in horses caused by infection with the protozoan Sarcocystis neurona (SN). SN infects horses when they ingest the organism in contaminated feed or water. The definitive host of this organism is the opossum, which passes the organism in its feces.

Is EPM in horses painful?

Horses that are suffering from EPM will also be painful around the occiput and atlas, due to the inflammation going on in the spinal cord. If you have the horse walk and have someone walk behind them and pull them by the tail off to one side, they will be unable to right themselves.

How do you prevent EPM in horses?

There are currently no vaccines for EPM, so pest and feed management are the best methods for prevention. A horse that contracts EPM cannot spread it to other horses, so there is no need to quarantine an infected horse.

Is there a vaccine for EPM in horses?

A vaccine against Sarcocystis neurona, a causative agent for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), has been available since 2000, but its efficacy has been unclear.

Can humans get EPM?

Yes. People can get sarcocystosis. They acquire the disease by ingesting (oral) the protozoan, most common- ly through undercooked meat prod- ucts. Disease in humans can involve either intestinal infection or muscular invasion by the parasite.

Why is my horse tripping behind?

Horses can stumble or habitually trip for a number of different reasons. The most common reason is similar to why we take a misstep if the ground is rough, slippery or uneven. Some horses are more ‘trail wise’ then others and know how to keep their balance over rough terrain. Others have to learn this.

Is EPM genetic in horses?

The disease is not transmitted from horse to horse. Rather, the protozoa are spread by the definitive host, the opossum, which acquires the organism from cats, raccoons, skunks and armadillos and possibly even from harbor seals and sea otters.

What should I feed my horse with EPM?

Dietary and Management Recommendations

  1. Low starch, high fiber and added fat are recommended since there is an increased incidence of digestive disturbances (diarrhea) as a side effect of treatment.
  2. Folic acid and vitamin E have been found to aid in nerve healing and should be included in the daily regimen.

Can a horse get EPM twice?

A: The short answer is, yes, horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) can relapse.

What are horse wobblers?

An equine wobbler is a horse with a damaged spinal cord. This can occur from malformation of the vertebral column, advanced arthritis in the vertebral joints or injury to the vertebrae.

How common is EPM in horses?

hughesi have been found in 21 states and, in some locations, up to 20% of horses may be seropositive to this organism. Luckily, only a very small percentage of horses seropositive to either parasite ever develop the disease we call EPM. The actual disease rate or incidence is difficult to estimate.

Do all possums carry EPM?

Causes of EPM A few types of wild animals and all opossums can be the carrier of the protozoa for EPM. While other animals may carry the protozoa in their body, only opossums can transmit EPM.

Are cats carriers of EPM?

Another subset of cats that were presented to a mobile spay-and-neuter clinic were sampled, and those cats had a much lower (10 percent) exposure rate. These studies suggest that the domestic house cat does play a role in transmission of S. neurona in nature and therefore likely has an impact on EPM in the horse.

Do barn cats carry EPM?

Outdated research at the University of Kentucky identified the opossum as the definitive host of the disease. However, since that time it has been learned that all wildlife can be a host and in particular, the “barn cat.” Yes, possums can carry EPM….but so can a myriad of other animals and birds.

Do raccoons give horses EPM?

Other hosts of S. neurona include skunks, raccoons, birds, armadillos and domestic cats, but these animals cannot directly transmit the disease to horses.

What does possum poop do to horses?

Answer: The disease is equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, or EPM, and is transmitted from opossums to horses when they eat or drink where infected opossums have defecated. The organism responsible for EPM is a parasite, Sarcocystis neurona, a protozoan or microscopic single-cell organism.

Can other animals get EPM?

EPM-like illness has also been recorded in several other mammals, including domestic dogs and cats.

Why is my horse walking on his toe?

Once you have determined that your horse has a tendency to land on his toes, you need to figure out the cause. Since horses are designed to land on their heels which are their natural shock absorbers, horses will usually only choose to land on their toes in order to avoid putting weight on their heels due to pain.

What does it mean when a horse stumbles?

When he trips, it’s usually because he catches a toe. This can happen if he takes a short stride, puts his foot down toe first, or just fails to clear a tree root or some other obstacle in his path. The leg knuckles over instead of landing squarely, and suddenly it isn’t there to support his weight. He tips forward.

Why is my horse dragging his front feet?

The horse may drag the front toe on the ground, or may move it slowly forward. Generally, a horse demonstrating this observation has a problem high in the limb, in the neck, armpit or chest. Injuries to nerves of the upper limb can also result in this appearance.

Can EPM be passed from mare to foal?

EPM can be passed from mares to foals through transplacental transmission of N. hughesi. Prevention involves management steps such as reducing exposure of horses to opossum feces, discouraging wildlife in areas where horses are kept, avoiding feeding horses on the ground, and minimizing stress in horses.

Is there a blood test for EPM in horses?

The blood test detects antibodies to S. neurona. A negative blood test can virtually rule out EPM, missing only those horses who have so recently (one to two weeks) been exposed to the protozoa that they have not yet produced specific antibodies.

How much vitamin E should a horse with EPM get?

The nutrient that is most commonly focused on for horses with EPM is Vitamin E. Supplementation with high levels of natural Vitamin E are often encouraged, as Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that supports nerve function and the immune system. Levels of 5,000 to 10,000 IU per day are recommended during treatment.

Does EPM cause diarrhea?

Other side effects include anemia, low platelet count, and low white blood cell count. Blood work will generally be done during treatment to monitor for these blood abnormalities. You will also want to watch for diarrhea. Catching the signs of EPM early will give your horse a better change at recovery.

Does EPM cause weight loss?

Additionally, EPM can lead to both muscle and weight loss, and pain associated with arthritis can also cause weight loss or prevent weight gain.

Can a horse recover from EPM without treatment?

If left undiagnosed and untreated, EPM can cause devastating and lasting neurological deficits. The success rate for treated horses is high. Many will improve and a smaller percentage will recover completely, but 10-20% of cases may relapse within two years.

Can EPM make a horse lame?

What are the clinical signs of EPM? Horses with EPM most commonly have abnormalities of gait but also may present with signs of brain disease. The disease ranges in severity from mild lameness to sudden recumbency and clinical signs usually are progressive.

Do skunks carry EPM?

In addition to the threat of rabies, skunks are an intermediate host for Sarcocystis neurona which causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a crippling and sometimes fatal neurological disease. As an intermediate host, skunks carry the disease-causing protozoan in their bodies and cannot transmit EPM to horses.

What does it mean when a horse holds its tail to the side?

A variety of conditions may cause a horse to hold their tail to the left or right, including abdominal pain (colic), neurologic problems, coat or skin conditions or injuries to or near their tail.

What does wobblers look like in horses?

A “Wobbler” is a horse with a damaged spinal cord. The most obvious clinical sign is an abnormal gait characterized by wobbling, or a horse that looks like he has had a fair amount of tranquilizers. Severe damage can actually result in a horse that may fall and have difficulty getting up.

Why is my horse limping on and off?

A lame horse is defined as having either an abnormal gait or being incapable of a normal gait. The most common causes of lameness in horses include infection (e.g. foot abscess), traumatic injuries, conditions acquired before birth (e.g., contracted tendons) or after birth (e.g., osteochondritis dissecans).

What does a possum poop look like?

Most opossum droppings are around 3/4 of an inch in diameter and taper off at the ends. Opossum feces are roughly one to two inches in length, smooth on the sides, and may have white or yellowish mold growing on the outer casings. Otherwise, opossum droppings are brown in color.

Do possums hurt horses?

Opossums of North and South America carry and shed a parasite called Sarcocystis neurona that is capable of infecting equines and causing a devastating neurological disease named Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, or EPM for short.

What is horse Ponazuril?

Ponazuril (brand names: Toltrazuril sulfone®, Marquis®, Ponalrestat®) is an antiprotozoal medication used to treat equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona. It may also be used to treat other protozoal parasites such as Toxoplasma spp, coccidia, and Neospora caninum.

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